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DJ Newham & E Lederman 1997 Effect of manual therapy techniques on the stretch reflex in normal human quadriceps. Disability and Rehabilitation 19:8:36-331

The effect of four manual therapy techniques on the quadriceps stretch reflex amplitude (elicited by mechanical
vibration) was studied in a randomized, controlled trial in 120 (20 in each of six groups) healthy human subjects aged 18-64 years. Passive and active techniques were studied; each under static and dynamic conditions. The passive procedures were massage (static) and knee oscillation (dynamic) for 5 min. Active techniques involved eight repetitions of isometric quadriceps contractions (static) and leg extension (dynamic). The two static techniques had no effect on the stretch reflex amplitude. Both dynamic techniques caused a reduction (active by 25%, p < 0-00001 and passive 12%, p < 0-05). Only the active, dynamic technique caused a greater change than in the control group (p < 0-005). The effect lasted for less than 1 min. These data question the ability of such techniques to make clinically valid changes in motoneuron excitability. Further studies are required on those with neuromuscular pathology, who may respond differently to normal subjects.

E Lederman 2000 Facilitated segment: a critical review. British Osteopathic Journal 22:7-10

The concept of spinal facilitated segments has dominated osteopathic neurophysiology for over half the last century. This concept has been at the heart of osteopathic teachings and is often used both in clinical diagnosis and as part of the rationale of treating different musculo-skeletal and visceral conditions. Surprisingly, such an important subject has never been criticised: the existence of facilitated segments and their relevance to manual therapy or osteopathic medicine has never been questioned. This article re-examines the original studies of Korr, Denslow and their co-workers, aiming to identify what has been demonstrated in these studies and to reinterpret their findings in the light of current knowledge of neurophysiology.

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E Lederman 2000 Harmonic technique: supporting joint repair. OMT News 2000/3:4-6 (Belgium)

Harmonic Technique is a group of manual techniques whereby the practitioner induces continuous rhythmic movement in different areas of the patient's body. This tends to create pendular movements within the natural resonant frequency of the body. Different areas of the body have different patterns and frequencies of oscillation. Harmonic Technique have been developed and researched at the British School of Osteopathy and described extensively by Lederman (1999). The clinical rational for using such techniques has become more evident over the last three decades due to extensive studies that have demonstrated the importance of passive motion for joint repair. This article will examine this relationship between passive motion and its possible therapeutic value.

E Lederman 1991 Harmonic technique. Journal of Alternative & Complementary Medicine July 91 pp. 17-19

This article is a summary of the research carried out at the British School of Osteopathy into techniques shown to induce a state of resonance within the body's tissues. This form of manipulation was termed Harmonic Technique. These techniques have always been a part of osteopathic manipulative work although until recently they were not fully understood or developed. They also lacked any theoretical or experimental support.
As a consequence of this research and further research being carried out, various aspects of the technique have been described and documented. These include the description of the techniques in relation to physics, biomechanics and neurophysiology; the role of Harmonic Technique in clinical work and within the concept of osteopathic manipulation; the compilation of known Harmonic Techniques and the introduction of numerous new techniques developed during the course of research and introduction of a teaching and notation method for Harmonic Technique.